Ernesto "Che" Guevara, born in Argentina, became one of Cuban Fidel Castro's most powerful guerrilla leaders and a hero of socialist revolutionary movements in the Southern Hemisphere.
In 1951, Guevara wrote The Motorcycle Diaries while traveling through South America, where his socialist views were forged upon witnessing stark social inequities in those countries. Following the ousting of the Arbenz government of Guatemala by a CIA-backed coup in 1954, Guevara became a staunch detractor of U.S. involvement in South America.
He regarded the northern power as an oppressive empire that tried to prevent Third World countries from addressing their own economic and social problems. Guevara was a member of Fidel Castro's "26th of July Movement" to overthrow Fulgencio Batista's government in Cuba.
In early 1962, Guevara was a delegate, along with Castro's brother Raul, to Moscow, which instigated the installation of nuclear missiles in Cuba prior to the Cuban Missile Crisis. Guevara was executed in the vicinity of La Higuera, Bolivia, on October 9, 1967, while fighting for the Bolivian Revolution.