The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory was founded in 1931, by Ernest Orlando Lawrence, winner of the 1939 Nobel Prize in physics for his invention of the cyclotron, a circular particle accelerator that opened the door to high-energy physics. His belief is that scientific research is best achieved through teams of individuals with different fields of expertise, working together. His teamwork concept is a legacy that has yielded rich dividends in basic knowledge and applied technology, and a profusion of awards. Today there are 10 Nobel Laureates associated with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. For more than 70 years, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has been a leader in science and engineering research. The Lab is located on a 200-acre site in the hills above the University of California Berkeley campus, adjacent to the San Francisco Bay. Berkeley Lab is the oldest of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Laboratories, and is managed by the University of California, operating with an annual budget of more than $500 million. Berkeley Lab conducts fundamental studies of the universe, quantitative biology, nanoscience, new energy systems and environmental solutions, and the use of integrated computing as a tool for discovery. It is organized into 17 scientific divisions and hosts four DOE national user facilities.