Trade Treaty with China
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Caleb Cushing, the first American commissioner to China, concluded the Treaty of Wang Hya (Wanghia) in 1844, which extended to the United States trading privileges equal to those enjoyed by Britain. In particular, this agreement opened certain Chinese “treaty ports” and provided “extraterritorial status” to Americans in China.
A treaty port typically was a major ocean or river port city once closed to trade with certain foreign nations, but subsequently opened by treaty. Often these treaty arrangements were forced upon the host nation (China and Japan, for example) and were resented by the residents.
Extraterritorial status allowed certain foreign nationals to remain under the legal control of their home governments. This rendered them exempt from local arrest, lawsuits and taxation. The undercurrent of this idea was that the native population was less civilized than the foreign visitors and could not be trusted to mete out proper justice. Extraterritorial privilege exists today and offers protection to United Nations representatives and foreign diplomats.
Foreign Affairs - A Trade War with China? - Neil C. Hughes
Summary: With China's economic clout growing rapidly, Americans are accusing Beijing of every offense from currency manipulation to crooked trade policies. None of these charges has much merit, but they have increased the probability of a U.S ...
war with China
... 7, 1901, China and eleven other nations signed the Boxer Protocol, by which China agreed to pay $333,000,000 in indemnity. The U.S. received $24,500,000, but in 1908 this amount was reduced and the money was used to educate Chinese students ...
Americans dreamed of building prosperity at home through trade with China. To achieve this political leaders and businessmen assumed that China needed to be stable, unified, and open to international commerce.
... wrongdoing or impotence.'" Over the long term the corollary had little to do with relations between the Western Hemisphere and Europe, but it did serve as justification for U.S. intervention in Cuba, Nicaragua, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic.