Amendment IX

The enumeration in the Constitution (narrative), of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

Ratified in 1791


See Table of Amendments.
See also Constitution (text).

---- Selected Quotes ----

Quotes regarding Amendment IX.

By Oliver Wendell Holmes
The most stringent protection of free speech would not protect a man in falsely shouting fire in a theatre and causing a panic.
Writing in Schenck v. United States, a Supreme Court case in 1919
By Louis Brandeis
Fear of serious injury cannot alone justify suppression of free speech and assembly. Men feared witches and burnt women. It is the function of speech to free men from the bondage of irrational fears.
Concurring in Whitney v. California, 1927
By Edward Kennedy
If we set the precedent of limiting the First Amendment, in order to protect the sensibilities of those who are offended by flag burning, what will we say the next time someone is offended by some other minority view, or by some other person's exercise of the freedom the Constitution is supposed to protect?
Letter to a constituent, 1997