Jefferson referred to the 12th amendment because he was writing before final ratification, at which time two amendments were not ratified and the original 12th became the 10th.
Hamilton was equally certain that the bank was permitted:
Now it appears to the Secretary of the Treasury, that this general principle is inherent in the very definition of Government and essential to every step of the progress to be made by that of the United States, namely--that every power vested in a Government is in its nature sovereign, and includes by force of the term, a right to employ all the means requisite, and fairly applicable to the attainment of the ends of such power; and which are not precluded by restrictions and exceptions specified in the constitution, or not immoral, or not contrary to the essential ends of political society.
The Supreme Court used the tenth amendment to strike down many acts of Congress that tried to implement progressive reforms on a national level. The disagreement reached crisis proportions during the Franklin D. Roosevelt's first term, when the Supreme Court struck down as unconstitutional many of the important features of the New Deal. FDR was prepared to pack the court with new and pliable justices, but public opinion persuaded him to abandon the attempt. It became unnecessary when the court reversed course and gave approval in Roosevelt's second term in cases similar to ones they had struck down earlier.
See Table of Amendments.