The ten-hour day became the established norm among artisans in the 1830s, but factory workers did not enjoy this protection until the next decade. The first ten-hour law was passed in 1847 by the New Hampshire legislature, but it included a provision whereby individual workers could contract for longer hours, which made the law ineffective.
As late as 1922, an analysis of labor practices at United States Steel showed that 26.5% of workers were doing twelve-hour shifts.
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Death in the Haymarket: A Story of Chicago, the First Labor Movement and the Bombing that Divided Gilded Age America by James R. Green.
On May 4, 1886, a bomb exploded at a Chicago labor rally at Haymarket Square, wounding dozens of policemen, seven of whom eventually died. A wave of m...