By the time of the arrival of European settlers, North Carolina was home to approximately 30,000 Native Americans. Prominent tribes were the Hatteras of the coastal area, the Cherokee of the mountainous western region, and the Catawba, Chowanoc and Tuscarora who ranged from the Piedmont to the coast.
Conflict between the races was relatively uncommon in the early years of white settlement, due largely to the small number of white settlers willing to undertake the rigors of life in northern Carolina. However, by 1700 growing numbers of white farmers were moving into Indian lands. The Tuscarora War of 1711-13 was evidence of the deteriorated relationship. In the following years, natives not killed in battle or forced off their homelands often fell prey to diseases introduced by the settlers.